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Chapter 7 TEST REVIEW 'Rise of the Greek Civilization"

Updated: Mar 11

Everything you need to get an A on your Chapter 7 Test!


Homework Packet

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1nxvxjNuiE3Dt_7_k_k8NCanR-efb3YqRmUTDOCnzFbg/edit



Lesson 1: Rise of Greek Civilization


• Greek civilization began on a mountainous peninsula surrounded by seas with many islands. As a result, Greek communities were often isolated. The Greeks created many independent city-states. This lack of unity weakened Greece, making it easier to be conquered.


MAP 1


• The Minoan civilization began on the island of Crete and influenced the Mycenaean civilization that arose on the Greek mainland. The Mycenaeans outlasted the Minoans and may have conquered them. The Minoans made their living as traders.

• Wars and earthquakes helped cause the fall of the Mycenaean civilization around 1100 b.c., followed by a “dark age." It is referred to as a "dark age" because trading and farming failed, and many people stopped reading and writing. During that time, the Dorians, a people known for making iron weapons and tools, invaded and drove the Greeks off the mainland. The Greeks also adopted the Phoenician alphabet.

• Greeks returned to the mainland and the “dark age” ended. The Greek population grew. This led the Greeks to establish colonies around the Mediterranean Sea, in places such as Italy, North Africa, and western Asia. The colonies increased trade and spread Greek culture. Colonies were first established around 700 B.C. to supply food.


The Mycenaeans learned a lot from the Minoans including navigating using the sun and stars.



MAP 2


• The Greeks developed the modern concept of citizenship. Each city-state was called a polis. Free, land-owning men could become citizens. Citizens could vote, hold public office, and defend themselves in court. Citizens were also responsible for serving in the government and defending the polis by serving as hoplites, or soldiers, in the army of the city-state.


Lesson 2: Sparta & Athens: City-State Rivals




• In the 600s b.c., there were many political changes in Greece. Farmers, merchants, and artisans wanted reforms. The unrest led to the rise of rulers with total power, called tyrants.

• Although many tyrants were fair rulers, by the 500s b.c. most city-states had replaced them with either an oligarchy or a democracy. An oligarchy is a government in which a few wealthy people hold power over the larger group of citizens. In a democracy, all citizens share in running the government.

• The city-state of Sparta created a military oligarchy with a very strong army. Spartans boys trained for war from an early age. Sparta's economy was based on farming and the Spartans had many slaves.

• The Spartan government resisted change. Citizens were prevented from traveling and there was little trade. Spartan women did have more rights than other Greek women, such as the right to own property.

• Athens developed from a city-state ruled by fair tyrants to a democracy. In the 500s b.c., the tyrants Solon, Peisistratus, and Cleisthenes made reforms that gave citizenship to all free men and helped the poor.


You must know what the reformers accomplished.


• An assembly of all male citizens became the main governing body of Athens. The assembly was aided by a council of 500 citizens, who introduced laws and helped run the daily affairs of the city-state.


Lesson 3: Greece & Persia




The Persians built a powerful empire in Southwest Asia under King Cyrus. This empire was so large that its rulers divided it into provinces called satrapies. Persia had a large, permanent army and a vast network of roads. Persians believed that their kings ruled by the power of the god Ahura Mazda.

• In the 400s b.c., Persia tried to expand into Europe and took control of some Greek colonies in the Mediterranean area. This led to war between Athens and Persia.


MAP 3


Persia invaded Greece under King Darius, but the Athenians defeated a much larger Persian army at the Battle of Marathon in 490 b.c. The Persian king Xerxes led another invasion in 480 b.c. and won a costly victory over the Greeks at Thermopylae against King Leonidas of Sparta. Later in 480 b.c., the Greeks destroyed a huge Persian fleet at the Battle of Salamis.

• The Persians lost a final battle at Plataea in 479 b.c. against a combined army of Greeks from many city-states. After this defeat, the Persian Empire weakened and became defenseless against outside attacks.


Lesson 4: Glory, War & Decline


• After the Persian wars, Athens entered a golden age of prosperity and achievement led by Pericles. He rebuilt Athens and formed a group of city-states called the Delian League. Pericles also expanded democratic government and encouraged trade.

• Athens was a direct democracy. All citizens met to debate and vote on government issues. This worked in Athens because the city-state did not have many citizens. Women had no political rights and there were many enslaved people in Athens who helped build its prosperous economy.

• Sparta did not join the Delian League. Instead, it became the leader of a group of city-states opposed to Athens. When Athens tried to interfere with Spartan alliances, war broke out in 431 b.c. Historians called the war the Peloponnesian War because Sparta was located in the Peloponnesus.

• Sparta had a stronger army, while Athens had a stronger navy. Sparta surrounded Athens but could not capture it. Then the Spartans joined with the Persians and built a navy. They conquered Athens in 404 b.c.

• Sparta ruled its newly acquired empire much as Athens had ruled its empire before. For 30 years, city-states rebelled unsuccessfully. Then, in 371 b.c. the city-state of Thebes overthrew the Spartan empire. The Greeks were so busy fighting each other that they failed to notice the growth of the powerful Macedonians to the north.


MAP 4




MAP 5


Class Notes:

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1xF7RDb8O19ePM4UJUxMcfv1DuOMjoaaL0g9QgyfKFL0/edit?usp=sharing



EXTRA CREDIT

DIRECTIONS :Answer each of the 23 questions IN COMPLETE SENTENCES. Make sure to answer the 11 questions on the 5 MAPS that are on this page. Answers can be found in your textbook. Bring it in on test day for 15 Extra Points.

1. Explain why there was a 300 year period of time in Greece called the Dark Age (give specific reasons)?

2. How was Sparta finally able to defeat Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War?

3. What did the Mycenaean’s learn from the Minoans?

4. What are Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns?

5. What was the first civilization to arise in Greece?

6. Who ran the Greek city-states?

7. How did Greeks define citizenship?

8. How did the Mycenaean civilization collapse?

9. What positive things occurred when Dorian warriors invaded Greece?

10. What is a tyrant and what country did they rule in?

11. How did Sparta control its citizens?

12. What were Spartan women trained to do?

13. Describe how a Spartan and Athenian boy’s life was different.

14. Which Greek ruler’s reforms were liked by both the rich and the poor?

15. Who wrote the History of the Persian Wars?

16. Which four lands did the Persian Empire conquer under King Cyrus?

17. What prospered under Pericles’ golden age?

18. Who fought in the Peloponnesian War?

19. What was the Delian League?

20. Why did direct democracy work?

21. Who started a new religion in Persia?

22. What was the Minoan palace called?

23. What was the name of the Greek funeral mask?



YOU WILL SEE THIS CHART AND PARAGRAPH ON YOUR TEST!

I would be prepared to answer questions about this chart.

Be prepared to answer questions about this selection.


You will see this map on the test.






Greek Graphic Novel

https://drive.google.com/file/d/17W4QMpZLjdCErpGe_Twhi1UNhiHNtPdK/view?usp=sharing





Quizlet

https://quizlet.com/178647543/chapter-7-lessons-1-4-rise-of-greek-civilization-flash-cards/


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